Sunday, May 17, 2020
Youve gotten the list of textbooks for your course. Before you sell your soul to the bookstore, find out which texts you really need and which ones to skip. Ask yourself these important questions: Will you keep the book? Thumb through the book and ask yourself whether or not you think the book will serve as a handy reference after the course is concluded. If yes, buy it, preferably new. If not, keep reading... Does the course actually use the text? Words to the wise: A book might be listed as required, but that doesnt necessarily mean you have to buy it! Some required texts really dont get used (ask upperclassmen) or can be borrowed. If you dont plan on keeping the book after the class, consider buying a used copy. When in doubt, wait until the first day of class to make a decision. Is this a lab book? Laboratory workbooks need to be purchased and they need to be new. Dont try to sneak in a used laboratory book. Your instructor will not be amused. Is the text available used? Really popular texts are usually available in used form. However, the text is probably popular because it is useful! If you need a book and will use it after the course ends, buy it new. If you are strapped for cash or the usefulness of the book is questionable, buy it used. Will the book help you? Sometimes a book is recommended, but not required. This is true for many study guides. Ask yourself whether or not you will benefit from using the book. Can the book be borrowed? Is it useful enough to buy, new or used? When in doubt, talk with your instructor. Can I afford it? Although this is a good question to raise regarding buying books, it is NOT a question to ask when deciding whether or not to obtain a book. The difference? Buying a book involves money. Obtaining a book might involve money, but it also could include borrowing from a student or professor. I dont recommend sharing important books. If you need a book, then get it!
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Deforestation: Did the MayanÃ¢â¬â¢s way of deforestation change the climate? It is widely known climate change is occurring because of multiple factors including greenhouse gases, human activity, and some scientists say solar irradiance. What most people do not know or simply have not thought of is how far back in history was climate change a problem or if it was an issue for early civilizations. It is apparent that early civilizations weakened for several reasons, but one reason in particular is affecting the world today. One particular civilization that is popular for their agriculture are the Mayans. The Maya empire occupied land that is now Guatemala. They were the most dominant native people before the 16th century and were intelligent in the way they did agriculture. With new research available, it is plausible to say the Mayans, did in fact, change the climate due to their way of deforestation. Environmental effects of deforestation are pressing. Due to the significant amount of tree lost, animals have lost shelter, regulates temperatures, increased greenhouse gases, less water in the air to be returned to the soil, and soil erosion. There are different methods of deforestation which include clean-cut, selective logging, perennial shade, and the most used, slash-and-burn. Slash-and-burn is mostly used by small farmers and ranch owners in the tropics including the famous Amazon rainforest. The process of slash-and-burn was to cut down the tress in a particular plot ofShow MoreRelatedClimate Change And Its Effects On The World Today1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIt is known climate change is occurring because of multiple factors, including greenhouse gases, human activity, and some scientists say solar irradiance. What most people do not know or simply have not thought of is how far back in history was climate change a problem or if it was an issue for early civilizations. It is apparent that early civilizations weakened for several reasons, but one reason in particular is affecting the world today. One particular civilization that is popular for their agricultureRead MoreThe Mayan Civilization2031 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Mayan Civilization at its height was one of the greatest civilization to ever reign on the planet. Their advances in astronomy and mathematics well in advance has helped present civilizations to prosper. But one of the great questions is what happened to the Mayans? Why did they collapse? What caused them to collapse? It is a question that had gone unanswered for decades until some of the worlds great historians and scientist finally concluded to three reasons why the Mayan Civilization collapsedRead MoreThe Origins Of The Ancient Civilization1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStates just disappearing? That is what happened to the Mayans. In a time span of only one hundred years, the whole Maya population was wiped out. There are several theorie s about the cause of their decline. Due to their disappearance the great Mayan inventions were lost in time until modern day anthropologists discovered that they made their own calendar and language along with many other things. What anthropologists do know for sure is that the Mayans were an ancient Mesoamerican civilization dating backRead MoreCollapse, By Jared Diamond1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesenvironment, climate change, relationship with hostile societies, along with relationships with neighboring friendly societies, and a society s response to problems. He believes these factors can help us in deciphering these societies and their collapse. The Mayans are one the most well known ancient civilizations, and in chapter five Diamond discusses this great society and how they came to a tragic end. Located in what is known as Meso-America and over 1,000 miles from the equator, the Mayans inhabitedRead MoreIs The Classic Mayan Civilization?1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiscussing is the Classic Mayan civilization. The civilization was located in Mexico around the region of the Yucatan Peninsula and Guatemala. The Growth and collapse of the Classic Mayan started at approximately 250 AD and ended around 830 AD. In 1931, a theory was proposed that the collapse of the Southern Mayan Lowlands was due to the erosion of soil, scarcity of land, encroachment of grasses, climate, etcetera Ã¢â¬ ¦(AOC) This theory more or less deals with the idea that the Mayan collapsed because ofRead MoreMaya Civilization Collapse1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshighlands or lowlands. Today to visit a Mayan site, people would go to the modern Mexican state, capital city of Merida. This site was once home to the Ã¢â¬Å"New Worlds most advanced Native American civilization before European arrival.Ã¢â¬ (Diamond, 2009) Over the years there has been many predictions on what had caused the Maya civilization to collapse. At the moment the most recent cause that geographers and scientists have come up with is that climate change may have had a major impact on this collapseRead MoreThe Environmental Effects Of Latin American Colonization2232 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthe great civilizations that are so well-known today. Tenochti tlan, modern-day Mexico City, became the center of the Aztec Empire, and was Ã¢â¬Å"larger than contemporary Paris, London, or LisbonÃ¢â¬ (Miller 10). With these great empires- namely the Aztec, Mayan, and Incan- the modern history of Latin America arose. When European explorers finally came about exploring the New World, they forever altered not only the social construction of the indigenous peoples, but they also immensely modified the environmentRead MoreThe Fall of the Mayan Empire Essay1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The fall of the Mayan Empire The collapse of the Mayan Empire is one of historyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest mysteries. It was one of the most advanced and developed civilizations of its time period, reining during the Pre-Classic period and into the Classic and Post-Classic Periods (2000 B.C. Ã¢â¬â 900 A.D.). The territory stretched from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, down to modern day El Salvador in Central America. Its achievements were monumental for the era, being the first empire communicating with the useRead MoreThe Country Of Mexico : Mexico City1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis so populated, it only has one metropolis: Mexico City. Mexico City is the most populated city in all of Mexico. The most highly dense populated cities in Mexico will mostly be found in the south or Ã¢â¬Å"waistÃ¢â¬ of the country, due to its climate. Mexico s climate is very different depending on whether one wants to visit the north or the south of the country. In North Mexico, it is very dry and hot with rugged mountains like the Sierra Madre Occidental that goes west and the Sierra Madre OrientalRead MoreGun, Germs, And Steel By Jared Diamond1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe five-point framework. This framework considers environmental damage, climate change, hostile neighbors, friendly trade partners, and most importantly societyÃ¢â¬â¢s response to its environmental problems. Every society he studies he applies this framework to determine a possible flaw in the collapse of the society. The novel starts with MontanaÃ¢â¬â¢s current environmental problems and evaluates societies as ancient as the Mayans and as recent as Modern China. Unlike its award-winning predecessor, Ã¢â¬Å"Guns
Question: a) Identify from research and academic theory, two of the paired topic areas from parts 3 of the module that apply an organisations effectiveness. Work groups and teams Management and Leadership Power and Politics Conflict and Negotiation b) Analyse and critically discuss the impact that your topic areas have on the culture of an organisation and the way in which employees are managed. Answer: Introduction Snap-on UK holdings limited is the organization selected for the purpose of this research assessment. The organization has been used to identify from research and literature three, 2 areas that influence this organization's effectiveness as per the opinion of De Wit et al. (2012). The two areas selected are, management and leadership Conflict and negotiation. The scope of this paper further lies in critically discussing the influence that the selected areas have on the selected organizations culture and the way in which employees are appropriately managed. Management and Leadership: Literature Review Definitions Even though leadership has been conceptualized from several perspectives as per Northouse (2010), the key to these conceptualizations lies in the following 2 features of leadership: It is a process that involves influence It occurs in groups, involves general goals, aims, and requires managing the workforce to lead them in the right direction (Eden et al. 2013). Based on these characteristics, leadership is a process wherein individuals influence individual groups by managing them to achieve a general goal. Leadership according to Kelloway and Barling (2010) is defined as a process that offers societal influence generally enacted through people in power based formal positions such as supervisors or managers. According to De Wit et al. 2012, leadership does not hold management tantamount to it even though both share general features. For example, both have their focus on influence, working with individuals and meet with the desired goals. The management function, however, is distinguished from that of leadership. Specifically, management focuses on making plans, budgets, organizing, recruiting staff and managing them as well as controlling and solving problems. As per Eisele et al. (2013) Leadership, on the other hand, involves the establishment of control and direction, alignment of individuals with the goals of an organization, motivating them and inspiring them to achieve the goals of the organization. Even after these distinct functions, often leaders are involved in tasks organizing and planning so as to get the tasks done and, in the same manner, managers often help in the achievement of group goals. Influence of leadership and management on organizational effectiveness: Case of Snap-on UK holdings limited According to De Wit et al. (2012) the theory of flexible leadership depicts the way in which top management and other leaders influence business organizations financial performance. Two essential financial performance determinants are efficiency, adaptation and human capital. Large range of behaviours in leadership, programs of management, structure forms and external initiatives can be used for influencing the determinants of performance. Eisele et al. (2013), believes that the theory of flexible leadership is conceptualized at the levels of organizations and includes four variable sets inclusive of effectiveness, determinants of performance, variables of a situation and decision and actions taken under leadership. Organization effectiveness, on the other hand, can be defined as the range until which it is possible to survive and perform missions as well as maintain favourable income, resources of finances and value of assets. Essential indicators for firms doing business are inclusive of the growth rate of profitable nature in the long term, investment return and return for stakeholders as mentioned by De Church et al. (2013). Effectiveness furthermore is dependent upon the 3 key determinants of performance inclusive of reliability in process and efficiency, capital in human resource form and the ability to adapt to the external environment. Such performance determinants are impacted through firm leader's decision an d action. As per the opinion of (Parris and Peachey 2013), the amount of profit this company makes depends upon the decisions of its leaders. The performance determinants are essential for this company and it is problematic to influence these determinants as they are subjected to external environment turbulence. Walstrom (2012) opines that leaders can improvise the organization performance through performance determinants influence. One way of influence used at Snap-on UK holdings limitedis using specific behaviors of leadership when interacting with subordinates and outsides. A second influence form involves decisions on programs of management and systems as well as structure of the organization. Eden et al. (2013) stated another form of influence evident at Snap-on UK holdings limited involves decisions taken about organizations competitive strategy. These forms of influence should be used collectively in a consistent manner for effective leadership to strategically foster. In several years of research over leaders and managers, various behavior types for leaders and managers have been recognized. Griffin (2011) has stated that a difficult barrier for researchers lies in organizing the various types of behaviors into hierarchical taxonomies that are implied with regard to behavioral influence. Task oriented behaviors are inclusive of planning in the short term and work activities scheduling, determine resources and staffing needs, assign tasks, clarify objectives and priorities, focus on efficiency and reliability, direct and coordinate activities, operations monitoring and deal with everyday operational issues. As per Eisele et al. (2013), Behaviors oriented on tasks are used for improving productivity and reducing costs through the removal of not required activities, effort duplication, managing wasted resources, errors, and risk. Kehinde (2011) mentioned that relationship oriented behaviors include to show support and positive respect, provide achiev ement recognition and contribution, provide training and to coach, consult with individuals on their decisions that will individually influence them, delegate and empower the managers, encourage collaboration and working in the team along with building an informational source network internally and externally. At Snap-on UK holdings limited, the main leadership behavior evident was the change oriented attitude. This was involved in making a maximum influence on the organization and enhancing its effectiveness. According to Macdonnell (2012), these behaviors are inclusive of monitoring environment to understand threats, opportunities, interpret events and explain why main change is required, articulate a vision to inspire, take risks for promoting change, build supporters coalition for the main change and determine the way in which new initiatives should be implemented. Jones and Brinkert (2007) stated that such leadership according is termed as transformational leadership as it offers inspiration based motivation and intellect stimulation showing that such behavior results in enhancing people and their performance when working in teams. Such behaviors oriented to change are particularly essential for top executives and management. Various recent researches have depicted that relationship b etween transformational CEO or charismatic leader with their company's relationship and effectiveness cannot be side-lined. According to , the behavior of a leader influences not just one determinant of performance but many at the same time when leaders know to manage along with lead. For example, at Snap-on UK holdings limited, consulting with team members for top executives is essential when formulating a new product based action plan. This, in turn, influences the commitment of the employees and makes then enhance their productivity at the individual level. This results in organizational effectiveness. Diagnostic tools for enhancing leadership to yield maximum organization effectiveness As stated by Griffin (2013), diagnostic tools are mediums to measure the improvement areas of leaders to enhance their effectiveness and the organizational effectiveness of the whole. An example of such a diagnostic tool is organizational effectiveness diagnostic which is a tool based on the survey. This is used for assessing with rigor and systematics, the relative strengths and weaknesses in every area specific to organization effectiveness. Israel (2012) opined,this tool is essential for organizations ability to enhance and implement its strategy and create influence. This tool has been implemented by Snap-on UK holdings limited in order to gain insight into five essential areas inclusive of leadership, making decisions and structure, individuals, work processes and systems as well as culture. Influence of leadership and management on organization culture According to Aziz et al. (2013), there are several ways by which leaders and managers can influence organization culture, especially through their actions and behaviors.Organization culture according to various researches is the shared beliefs, values or perceptions that employees hold in an organization. The culture of an organization reflects beliefs, behaviors norms and values that are utilized by employees of an organization to give implication to a situation they find themselves in. According to Jones and Brinkert (2007), this can influence the staff's attitude and behavior. Understanding the core values of organizations can lead towards preventing internal conflict possibility as well. Moore (2014) said that culture is learned in the society and can be transmitted among members by providing the rules for behaving within an organization. Organizational culture from this perspective is the belief that can guide staff to know what has to be done and what not inclusive of values an d assumptions on their task. As stated by Macdonnell (2012), oorganization based key values within leadership evolve into the style of leaderships. The subordinates working under these leaders are led through the values and leaders behaviors such that the behavior of the parties involves becomes in alignment to each other. When behavior depicts strong unification of values and beliefs, the organizational culture of the organization becomes equally strong. According to Meslec et al. (2015), leaders need to appreciate their operational activities to maintain the culture of an organization. This, in turn, helps in ensuring consistent attitude between organizational members, reduce conflicts and create a health work environment for all those involved within the organization. There are primary mechanisms according to several studies required for embedding culture which is inclusive of: Leaders paying attention to measuring and controlling Leaders reacting to essential situations Resource allocation criteria Modeling role, training, and coaching Observed way to allocate rewards and position Observed criteria to recruit, select, promote, retire and excommunicate If the starting point of a leader is culture then the major determinate lies in understanding whether the leader has managed to gain organizational effectiveness. Snap-on UK holdings limited focuses on evolving its leaders through an open communication culture. The company has set up technological advancement based systems and applications to make communication across the levels of organization simple. As mentioned by Israel (2012), this allows the company the benefit of effective leaders as they are able to coordinate and bring cooperation among the team members in the organization. As a leader, the Snap-on UK holdings limited top management brings forward various management programs that help the company to motivate employees and enhance their trust in the leaders. In turn, this leads towards a positive influence on the entire organization. This section has elaborated the significance of effective leadership in order to sustain a positive environment of culture and management. Such theories and diagnostic tools as addressed in this section depending upon the right behavior style are essential to attain organizational effectiveness and cultural effectiveness. Conflict and Negotiation: Literature Review, models, and applications Definition According to Jones and Brinkert (2007), conflict is a process that starts when a party perceives that other party is negatively influencing them or is about to negatively influence them. It is the point in a consistent activity when interaction crosses over to become a conflict between parties. It encompasses wide conflicting ranges that individuals experience within organizations such as goals incompatibility, the difference in facts interpretation and disagreement depending upon behaviour expectations. Moore (2014) stated several types of conflict are inclusive of task conflict (over content and working goal), relationship conflict (based on relationships of interpersonal nature) and process conflict (conflict on how work is getting done). According to Meslec et al. (2014), intergroup conflict involves functional and dysfunctional conflict. Functional conflict leads towards enhancing the performance of organizations. It happens when groups are in disagreement over the best way to reach goals rather than over the goal itself. This conflict generally results in selecting better alternative means. Positive functional conflict contributions are as follows: Playing an essential role in group stagnation prevention and preventing resistance over change Has the ability to lead towards enhanced problem awareness that requires being addressed Can result in broad and highly productive solutions search Can lead towards facilitating change, adaptation and innovating Wang et al. 2014 have mentioned about dysfunctional conflict, which is a conflict that hinders organizational goal achievement. Management then looks into eliminating this conflict. Functional conflict can also turn into this type of conflict. The consequences of dysfunctional conflict are highly negative inclusive of changes in the groups and changes between groups. As stated by Aziz et al. (2013), negotiation, on the other hand, is a method to manage conflict and is also known as the conflict negotiation process. Using resolution and techniques for stimulation can help in achieving desired conflict management. Negotiation can be defined as an exchange of goods and services between parties and attempts at agreeing over the exchange rate to bring an end to the conflict. It is a process wherein an attempt is made to reach agreements of acceptable nature in a circumstance that is characterized by disagreement based same level. According to Pedler et al. (2013) there are 4 elements characterizing negotiations inclusive of trying to solve a conflict present, interdependence level between the parties involved, the circumstance is conducive to the interaction opportunities and there exists some agreement possibility without which negotiation cannot bring over positive conflict negotiation. Adopting a win-win approach according to David et al. (2012), is the best approach to gain conflict resolution as it offers both the parties something different. Influence of conflict and negotiation on organization effectiveness: a case of Snap-on UK holdings limited According to Robins and Judge (2013), conflict is a dynamic process. In modernized organizations, conflict is helpful for enhancing the effectiveness of organizations. There are various stages involved in the process of conflict from starting to end inclusive of a conflict situation, situational awareness, realization, conflict manifestation, suppressing conflict to resolve it and conflict situation after effects. These are described in the following figure: Source: (Robins and Judge 2013, p. 370) In each of these stages, the organization effectiveness is influenced. The influence is at times positive and mostly negative. When negative, the influence results in hampering effectiveness in the following ways: Diverting energy from tasks Threatening well-being of psychological nature Wasting resources Creating a negative atmosphere Interfering with communication Breaking down cohesion of group Increasing hostile nature and aggressiveness Leading towards increasing politics that is efforts for acquiring power for advancing their individual efforts Leading groups towards stereotyping one another Snap-On UK Holdings Limited benefitted from one of the functional conflicts that took place in the company. The positive influences, in turn, led towards organizational effectiveness because: It led towards newer thoughts It further led towards stimulating innovation and creativity The conflict motivated to change and took into consideration different approaches and ideas Promoting organizations strength through enhancing vitality The conflict helped individuals and teams to establish particular identities Increased loyalty and performance were evident in each group The conflict served as a safety aid as it led towards creating a positive environment where individuals and leaders are committed towards the company they work for rather than their individual self. According to Pondy (2006), it can be said that leaders played an efficient role and a significant role when dealing with the conflict as already stated, functional conflict can lead towards non-functional conflict that could hamper effectiveness gravely. In order to deal with the negotiation process effectively, the leaders as top managers of the company chose to adopt diagnostic tools that can help ease out the negotiation process and enhance the effectiveness of an organization. The tools were inclusive of Belbin inventory and Big 5 model. Belbin Team inventory modelwas used for the following benefits: According to Rahim (2002), providing a general, non-threatening and positive atmosphere where individuals are allowed to communicate with each other and work collaboratively with enhanced knowledge. Such knowledge can be utilized for bringing new teams together or for making current teams motivated as well as effective. The use of this tool furthermore helped in providing a base from which Snap UK Holding Limited could follow a consistent approach to building an effective team based on systems of management. However this model does not often work as literature illustrates this model to have several limitations: In cases where conflict is not involved between teams but conflict involves employees and top management, this model will not work for Snap-On UK Holdings Limited as this model is limitedly designed for teams only The model can be utilized for predicting the performance of a group when used within settings at work but at times, businesses face conflict within social settings as well Personality is not measured through this model, rather focus is over personality Conflict and negotiation influence over Organizational culture According to Robbins et al. (2013), different cultures have different perspectives on conflict and its management. An old man may negotiate in a different way than a young entrepreneur. Such differences are present in organizations ever since the advent of globalizations. Negotiation as well is influenced by cultural differences such as desiring for long-term relationship rather than a one-time relationship, preferring to win, having informal or formal attitude, communicational style differences (either direct or indirect), some cultures foster showing emotions while others prefer hiding it and in some cultures decisions are made through groups while in others it is through leaders. Conclusion At Snap-On UK Holdings Limited, the cultural effectiveness of the firm lies in the leadership capabilities that solve conflict using open communication style. As per Robbins et al. (2013), the company undertook research on different culture based negotiation styles so as to deal with conflict in alignment with the cultural differences present. In order to gain positive influence on its culture, the company uses cultural approaches to negotiation when in a conflict in order to in turn positively influence its effectiveness. Some of these approaches are: Time orientation: According to Riemann (2010), there are 2 distinct orientations to time existing across the world inclusive of monochromic and polychromic. Approaches that are monochromic have time in linearity and require a focus on only one thing at a time. Such approaches are common in cultures influenced by European region evident in U.S, Germany, Switzerland and Scandinavia. Negotiators from polychromic cultures such as those at Snap-On UK Holdings Limited, have a tendency to start and end meetings in flexible timing, take appropriate breaks, have comfort with free flow of information, expect to read and listening to others minds, overlapping talk at times and taking punctuality of time personally. Sustaining power distance: Negotiations are essential but they should not fail to consider power distance sustainability between them. Wang et al. (2014) utilized the power distance idea for describing the deference degree and unequal power acceptance among people. According to Tafel -Vija et al. (2009), cultures wherein there is comfort with higher power distance are those wherein some people are regarded more than the others due to status in the society, their gender, education, their personal rewards and related factors. Snap-On UK Holdings Limited is a company with low power distance with a tendency to assume equality between people. Such a culture helps Snap-On UK Holdings Limited from the perspective that when in conflict, all parties know that they are at an equal level without any partiality. Aziz et al. (2013) opined this confidence of the employees leads towards the positive effectiveness of the organization and a strong organizational culture. References: Aziz, R.A., Abdullah, M.H., Tajudin, A. and Mahmood, R., 2013. The effect of leadership styles on the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia.International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies,2(2), pp.45-52. Burnham, D.H., 2015. Create Your Personal Leadership Development Plan. The Discover Your True North Field book: A Personal Guide to Finding Your Authentic Leadership, pp.199. https://as.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-111910355X.html De Wit, F.R., Greer, L.L. and Jehn, K.A., 2012. The paradox of intragroup conflict: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(2), pp.360-390. DeChurch, L.A., Mesmer-Magnus, J.R. and Doty, D., 2013. Moving beyond relationship and task conflict: Toward a process-state perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), pp.559-578. Eden, C. and Ackermann, F., 1998. Making strategy: The journey of strategic management.Sage, pp.15-86.https://sk.sagepub.com/books/making-strategy Eisele, L., Grohnert, T., Beausaert, S. and Segers, M., 2013. Employee motivation for personal development plan effectiveness.European Journal of Training and Development, 37(6), pp.527-543. Griffin, R., 2011.Fundamentals of management.Cengage, pp. 11-16. Israel, G.D, 1992. Determining Sample Size.Program Evaluation and Organizational Development, IFAS, University of Florida.PEOD-6. November, pp. 1-5. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pd006 Jones, T.S. and Brinkert, R., 2007.Conflict coaching: Conflict management strategies and skills for the individual. Sage Publications. Kehinde, O.A, 2011. Impact of Conflict Management on Corporate Productivity: An Evaluative Study. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(5), 44-49 Kevin Kelloway, E., Barling, J. and Helleur, J., 2000. Enhancing transformational leadership: The roles of training and feedback.Leadership Organization Development Journal, 21(3), pp.145-149. Macdonnell, J., 2012. Using the Belbin Team-Role Self Perception-Inventory to Form Groups and Assign Roles for Media Production Assessment. Media Education Research Journal, 3(1), pp.50-62. Meslec, N. and CurÃâ¦Ã ¸eu, P.L., 2015. Are balanced groups better? Belbin roles in collaborativelearning groups.Learning and Individual Differences, 39, pp.81-88. Moore, C.W., 2014. The mediation process: Practical strategies for resolving conflict. John Wiley Sons, pp.5-10. Parris, D.L. and Peachey, J.W., 2013. A systematic literature review of servant leadership theory in organizational contexts.Journal of business ethics,113(3), pp.377-393. Pawlak , Z, 1998. An inquiry into anatomy of conflicts. Journal of Information Sciences, 109, 65-78. Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J. and Boydell, T., 2006.A Manager's Guide to Self-development.McGraw-Hill Education (UK).56-69. Pondy, L.R, 1966, A systems theory of organizational conflict. Academy of Management Journal, 9, 246-53. https://www.jstor.org/stable/255122 Prescott, D. and El-Sakran, T., 2013. Teamwork repair strategies. Edulearn 13 proceedings.Pp 339-339 Rahim, M.A., 2002, Toward a theory of managing organizational conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 13(3), 206-235. Robins, S. P, and Judge, T. A. 2013. Organizational behavior (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pretence Hall. pp. 366-378 Tafel-Viia, K., and Alas, R., 2009. Differences and Conflicts between Owners and top Managers in the Context of Social Responsibility.Engineering Economics, 64(4). P. 86-94 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228879968_Differences_and_Conflicts_between_Owners_and_top_Managers_in_the_Context_of_Social_Responsibility Walstrom, K.A., 2012. Toward an implicit general systems model of leadership.International Leadership Journal,4(3), pp.58-76. Wang, D., Waldman, D.A. and Zhang, Z., 2014. A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness.Journal of Applied Psychology,99(2), p.181.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Joy Luck Club The Joy Luck Club, by Amy Tan, is a powerful portrayal of four Chinese women and the lives of their children in America. The book discusses the conflicting cultures between the United States and China, and how men treat women throughout their lives. People living in the United States usually take for granted their roles as a male or female. The culture of each country shapes the treatment one receives based on the sex of the individual. There are obvious differences within the different cultures. These differences show themselves in the work force, the distinct tasks performed in the home, and the privileges one receives in society. In the work force, the women of America hold many positions of importance. They are usually treated as equals with men and there are few jobs from which they are excluded. In China, women are expected to stay at home and are not permitted to be in a work force that is held exclusively for men. The women of America receive fair wages and have earned the right to work with men. In China, women are assigned the role of housewives and must stay at home to clean the house and raise the children. Women in America receive educations that will prepare them for the high paying jobs of a professional. The women in China are known for taking orders from their husbands. Another feature that is found to be different in China from America is the different roles women take in the home. The author explains that a Chinese woman is expected to be a good wife for her chosen husband. Girls are promised at an early age to a man. The story "The Red Candle" shows an arranged marriage where the author sacrificed her life to fulfill her parents' promise of marriage when she was only two years old. At the marriage ceremony the candle is lit at both ends and if neither end goes out it will be a successful marriage. Of course, the woman was the one held responsible for making the marriage a successful one. In an American marriage, each person is held accountable for the success of a marriage. There are no arranged marriages and no matchmakers as in the Chinese culture. Marriage is expected to be for love not to fulfill promises between families. Another difference reflected in the book is that the women in China have different privileges than men. In the story, Amy Tan, showed how women were not important enough to choose many things for themselves. They were given all the orders and were expected to follow them without question. They did not have choice in whom they married and whether they worked. Girls were also given to other families when they were young. A son could never go to another home to live. The women of America would never stand for this treatment. They are educated and make their own decisions. Differences in the cultures of Chinese and American women are numerous. Lena St. Clair says it best when she talks about the equality she has with her coworker, Harold. This is not possible in China, however, it is expected in America. The women in China appear to accept their misery. The women in America make every effort to rise above a life that does not place them at equal level as a man.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
buy custom The Really Smart Phone essay Smart phone is a mobile phone that has the characteristics which are more in advanced in the connectivity and on computing ability than the normal cell phone. Smart phone are sometimes thought as handheld integrated computers with a mobile telephone in them. A smartphone enables the user to run and proactively do the multitasking of applications that are in built to the principal hardware. A complete operating system is installed in smartphones and this software enables the provision of a platform for provision of application by developers and users. Thus they have the combination of the camera phone and personal digital assistant in them (PDA). According to a research conducted in the early 2011, smartphones are having rates that are very accelerating when it comes to the rate at which mobile phone users are adopting them for work and for contact purposes. The research result according to Olswang report showed that 22% of mobile phone uses have switched to the smart phone and most o f these being in the age bracket of 25- 35 years (Mobile reference 56). The growing demand for the more advanced mobile services which have high and powerful processors, larger LCD screens, large memories and an operating system that is open has overtaken the rest of the phones with the low processing sped and have the absence of the operating system. These phones include this smart phone. According to the study conducted by the Comscore, over 45.5 million mobile phone users in the United States had the access and owner ship of smart phones by the year 2010. This percentage was out of the 234 million registered subscribers hat are present in that country (Mobile reference 46). The first smart phone was designed and shown as a product concept in the year 1992 by the IBM Simon. The smart phone was released out to the market in 1993 and was sold by the user. Despite being a mobile phone device, this first ever designed smart phone had he features of a calendar, address book, the world clock, the calculator, email services, games, the note pad and the sending and receiving of fax options. The smart phone had no physical keypads to operate and instead it had the touch screen option that was used for operations purposes. Many users have this question in mind, what makes a smart phone? And why is it smart? Below is the answer. A smart phone has much difference from the normal cell phone, as said in the first paragraph, a smart phone is a device for making and receiving calls and at the same time have a lot of added features that makes it more than a phone. These features include the ability to receive and send emails and the options of editing office documents for instance. Smart phones were developed as a result of the renovation of the cellphone and the personal digital assistants. The key smart phone that makes it a smart phone includes the ability the following features in details; Operating system- a smart phone must have the feature of being installed with an operating system that allows its applications to run productively. The blackberry smart phones for instance use the blackberry operating systems whereas most of them use the common windows mobile operating system(Mobile reference 14). Software- other than the basic software that is common even in the normal cell phone, smart phones has the ability to do m ore software tasks such as use of the Microsoft word, viewing and downloading of applications and personal and business finance manager soft wares (Mobile reference 15). QWERTY Keyboard- this is a definition of the key arrangements that are present in a computes keyboard, the smart phone has the same feature in the arrangement of its keypad as that of the computers keyboard. This keyboard in the smart phone is found in the physical form whereby one can type on or in the touchscreen format (Mobile reference 14). Messaging services- despite the feature of receiving and sending messages being common in most of the cell phones, the smart phone has the added feature that enables it to handle the e- mails in multiples and access of the yahoo messenger option among other options. Web Access- The website access is a property that allows the computer systems to access the internet services at a higher speed as a result of the development and the growth of the 3G network system and the Wi-Fi support among the smart phones (obile reference 14). The legal issue of the smart phones The legal sue of the use of smart phones for personal use ad business use has brought forward many issues. However, much issue has been put across in the use of these devices for business purposes among individuals and organizations. If the company owns or uses a smartphone, then it also owns all the phone number that are assigned to that device, in case an employee leaves the company, the phone number is usually given to anther employee and for that reason if that employee owns the smartphone and leave the company, all the contacts belonging to customers and other employees that were in that number are no longer used for contact purposes with the company. Due to the varying laws in different states, the employers might have rights in one location but no rights another location. The most important legal issue about the use of the smart phones at business is the question of who has the access and ownership to data. When these phones are issued to employees in a business organization, then he or she is the one with aces to the information stored on these smartphones. Their complex features that are almost similar to those of computers make them to store a lot of data. This data can be relevant to the business or irrelevant. For instance, in an organization that offers healthcare service or financial services, most of the information about these customers is stored in these smart phones and can therefore be traced back by any one who has access to the smartphone. Due to the sensitivity of this information, it is the mandate of the user to protect the private data that is private and confidential (Mobile reference 44). Despite the positive outcomes that are present in the use of the smart phones, they also happen to have several issues that are of disadvantage both to the customer and the employer or the user. For instance, these smart phones due to their feature that enables them to have the GPRS settings, this is an implication that someone can monitor the moves of the individual with the phone either knowingly or unknowingly. This is made possible by installation of special programs that enable one to tread the call logs, the email messages, the texts, and listen to made conversations. This aspect might be of both value and disadvantage depending on the purpose of the tracking. These are the issues associated with the employee and customers monitoring (Mobile reference 48). The other issue that raises eyebrow on their legality is the liability factors. This happens when an employee uses the smart phone a basement to launch an attack or to hack into a network or a website that is out of restriction for him or her, harassing a worker or a customer or the act of any other cyber crime. As a result, one wonders where it is possible for an individual to sue to the company or the employee via claims that by the use of the companys devices, the employers action were in representation of the entire company. Smart phone laws Fast case- is a mobile law for smart phones and in precise the iPhone that allows the user to have the option of searching all the cases and statutes from all the states inclusive of the federal government. The smart phone technology search enables the puling of the cases tat are most relevant to the search query on top of the feature that customizable and help in the search process in the iPhone. Thus application is free in smart phone but it needs an application of the account in order to make sure that one gains access to features such as the document saving of the search of historical facts. This is a law that has very many lawyers being in registration with it due to its effectiveness (George 129). Droid Law- just like the fast case law, the droid law in smart phone is a form of a legal reference for smart phone and other mobile users application that ensures the following bases in its application, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, the Federal Rules of Evidence, the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure. Additional reference materials include, such as the code of the United States or U.S. Constitution add-on are mush available for user but unlike the fast case law, the Droid law gooes at a fee (George 128). Blacks Law Dictionary, 9th Edition- this is the most applied law book in the world, this is an application in the blackberry smartphone that enables the user to access over 55,000 different terms of language with spelling pronunciations and over 3000 quotations at your smart phone. This smart phone application has much legality for todays students due to its dictionary feature plus other features such as the progressive and the look up search features. The above named different mobile laws have different impact depending on the user. The career of the user has much to do with the law that the user decides to purchase. On my own point of view smart phones should have the above laws this is due to the fact that most of their use is for business purposes. The business that they are used for operate at different features, for that reason, a user who works in a security organization such as the police departments is likely to purchase a different law from his/her smart phone from a user whose smart for is for business that involve lawyers, the same case applies to student, they are likely to purchase a law that has much relevance to their education and in this case they are likely to purchase the Blacks Law Dictionary, 9th Edition law (Alexander 34). However, mobile laws are likely to cause or be responsible for negative outcomes, as a result some of the federal houses have come up with a proposal that have been implemented in some states in the united states of banning the smartphones as a results of fears that lead to beliefs that they could be used as bombs. This was in a report that was released on March, 23 the year 2011 by the administrative office of the courts. The main reason for this ban was claims that some smart phones could and can be used as bombs due to the fact hat these devices commonly present the issue of security among their users, as a result of their features that support most of the programs, they can be converted to bombs and explosive via the remote control through the installation of special programs. This issue has raised issue in the security sector. In most countries that have large number of smart phone users, their non- metallic feature and their small size also makes it very impossible for them to be scanned in order for hem to be detected for test of explosives and harmful devices that might be tracked on them. Other negative issue related to the use of smart phones includes the secret recording and transmission in court proceedings whereby it enables the assessors to use their smart phones and their internet capabilities to conduct the research and come up with solutions. As a result of this, Federal courtrooms across the country have varying policies concerning mobile devices. Some of the courthouses have been known to require individuals to check in their mobile devices at the security entry. Other courthouses necessitate users to humbly turn their devices such as mobile phones and PDAs off. In San Francisco, the state where live blogging throughout court proceedings is a usual practice, several federal courtrooms actually have Wi-Fi networks available to allow wireless access for mobile and other devices. In another instance where the smart phones have been use to conduct illegal offences, in the past three years, the Chicago Police Department has supplied powerful new tools to officers who are in the fieldBlackBerry smart phones. But the BlackBerry smart phone may have miscarried on the police department, which is now being charged by an officer in the gang investigations unit for the overtime that he claims he earned while using his smart phone off the clock. The police department has deliberately violated the FLSA [Fair Labor Standards Act] by purposely declining to pay the complainant and other similarly situated employees in the department all compensation outstanding them under the FLSA for their after-hours Blackberry use A judge had to certify the case in a court of for a final decision to be made. The situation is one of a margin worldwide in which employees have claimed overtime compensation for smart-phone useand in precise it is the first that was involving public employee s. However, different lawyers said that such cases are a perfect warning to employers to put a smart-phone usage strategy and policy in place before they end up in the same situation. Buy custom The Really Smart Phone essay
Friday, February 28, 2020
How do you evaluate the economics discourse of sustainability - Essay Example Unfortunately many debates and studies about the measurement of sustainability do not define, or even derive a common understanding, about what is to be measured. Nonetheless, the context of sustainability cannot be separated from its measurement. In simple words, experts argue that there is need to consider economic, environmental and social indicators to measure sustainability. For example, economic indicators are income level in society, inflation, unemployment, exports / imports statistics, GDP, FDI, Public and Foreign Debt etc. Social indicators may include Suicide rates, people living below poverty line, difference between rich & poor, rate of urbanization, spread of diseases, mortality rates, educational and health spending etc. Environmental factors include carbon emissions and pollution. Together, the evaluation of these aforementioned indicators helps determining the level of sustainability in a particular nation or society. It should be pinpointed that economists, statisticians and business professionals have developed various quantitative models and tools to estimate economic betterment and real growth rates. Nevertheless, the nominal growth is not considered as true representation of economic sustainability, growth and expansion. Some of the best examples of quantitative methods for measuring sustainability include Liverman and Sustainable Seattle (that ranges from the simple to complex), Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s Credit Rating etc. Economists, indeed, claim that a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance and use of local resources for domestic production (without any violation of environment and business laws) and need fulfillment of local + foreign consumers leads to accumulation of wealth and sustainability in that country. In addition, it reduces dependence on foreign countries, donor agencies and international community, which later enhances its political and economic power, reputation and
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Censorship of pornography - Speech or Presentation Example In 1973, the Supreme Court tried to define what could be considered as obscene in the case of Miller v. California. It was held in the said case that pornography is obscene if applying community standards and viewing such material as a whole, (1) the "dominant theme taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest" (2) that it depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way; and (3) that it lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value (Miller v. California 1976). Community standards may have evolved, as more people are becoming more liberated and open-minded. But the average person as a whole still defines what is proper. Pornography injures not just the community but also, the self-respect lost by its subjects. The abuse that it contemplates is not limited to what could be shocking to the conscience of men, but what is proper to humanity. Obscenity is never a matter of individual belief or perception, it is not how one can be impressed or satisfie d by such material, rather, it is the perception of the community as a whole which is genuinely taken. In our modern time where media and the Internet are accessible to every person, even to a child, the State must act upon its authority to provide the sanctity and safety of every individual through regulation.